女性のための英語 English for Girls

あなたの脳のはたらきをそのまま使う最も自然な訓練方法
2010年6月10日(第一回)から毎週木曜日の教材提供
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女性のための英語(17):会話−5−1(会話を盛り上げるために)

前回2回は、日本語の会話のリズムを絶対に変えないこと。そして、何よりも自分のことをまず話せるようにする訓練をしました。

今回は、日本語を良く知らない外国人があなたに日本語の意味を尋ねることを想定した会話を、単語林(Tangorin)Forumで実際に私が助言したことを例にとって訓練にします。日本語の意味をきちんと理解しなければ、英会話にはならないことを分かって欲しいからです。外国人との会話を豊かにするためにも参考になる例を特に選んでいます。

今回も2回に分けます。目次は次の通りです。


会話−
51

1.         英語で日本語を教える(構文の違いを実感する)

2.         英語と日本語の丁寧さの違いを実感する

 

会話−52

3.         自分の失敗談で会話を盛り上げるための参考

4.         日本語の季節感を話そう

緑の文章が、日本語を独学している外国人の質問です。その質問に対して、同じく独学している外国人が答えたものと私が答えたものを対比しています。単語林は、英語を覚えようとする私たち日本人にとっても非常に役に立つサイトです。私たちが英語に苦労するのと同様に彼らも日本語に苦労しているのが分かるだけでも物の見方が変わるかもしれません。時々覗いてみると良いと思います。思い切って投稿することも考えてはいかがでしょうか?

 

1.         英語で日本語を教える(構文の違いを実感する)

 

Question:

I have a question about politeness. Yeah I know how it works, but my japanese speech is far from perfect. (By perfect, I mean fluent.) So I talk to myself in Japanese. (I would talk to others, but I'm shy, and my vocab in japanese is very small. (aw man))

So one day, I was tryna say "I'd wanted zarusoba, but..." but instead I said,
「欲しいでした笊そば、けど

 

Answer A: (外国人の説明で、変なところもありますし、参考になるのもあります。)

both 欲しいでした and 欲しかったでした are completely incorrect and can never be used. I have a feeling that a native speaker would actually be completely confused if you said this.
Another thing is that your sentence structure is backwards. The subject of the sentence is
ざるそば, so ざるそば
should come first in the sentence.

Something like
「ざるそばが欲しかったですけど」


If you wanted to use
欲しい first, you would need a , like 「欲しかったのはざるそばでしたけど」.

 

Answer B: (私の説明です)

You may say to a waitress when something else comes; "I am supposed to have ordered Zarusoba." ざるそばを頼(たの)んだはずですが・・・

However, when you did not complain and started eating it, your friend may ask, "you ordered something else, didn't you?"
You may say, "I actually wanted Zarusoba but this is OK."
(ざるそばが欲しかったのですが・・・これでいいです。)

 

Further question:

Is "見せないでくれます" just as OK as "見せてくれません"?

 

Answer A:  (外国人の説明です。おかしなところはどこでしょう?)

Although 見せないでくれます and 見せてくれません are both correct sentences, they do not mean the same thing. You can't use them interchangeably.

「見せないでくれます」
means "He's going to do me a favor and not show it." Meaning, in this situation you don't want him/her/them to show whatever it is, and he/she/them are going to comply with your wishes.

「見せてくれません」
means something like "(I want him to, and yet) He won't show me!" In this situation, you want to see whatever it is, but he/she/they are not going to show it.

This is because the
くれる verb shows that a favor is being done for you. So, if it's negative then a favor is not being done for you.

 

Answer B: (私の説明です)

見せないでくれます does not seem a correct sentence. I can't think of any situation this can be used. 見せてくれません or 見せてくれない(のです)are both used for "he did not (or does not) let me see it."

Another confusing usage
;「見せてくれません?」is a request, casually and very often used for "will you show it to me?" or "Let me see it."

 

2.         英語と日本語の丁寧さの違いを実感する

 

Question:

Living in America, there's not much of a difference in politeness levels whether you're speaking to your friends or to your teacher, unless the circumstances suggest otherwise.

For example:
Approaching your friend - "What're you doing?"
Asking your teacher a question - "So, what're we doing in class today?"

With my limited resources and no contact to a person who genuinely speaks Japanese, it's hard for me to imagine a world outside TV shows, comics, and songs, where people don't exactly use "appropriate" language. I want to talk to someone and know that I'm speaking to them correctly (politeness-wise). Could someone help me out?

本がいる
"I need a book" - probably only used with people you've known for a LONG time?

本がいます
"I need a book" - used to speak with anybody you don't know well?

There's a ton I don't know about this topic, and if I want to travel to Japan someday it's absolutely necessary. Please add any information you have.

 

Answer:  (私の説明です)

Some thought about politeness and impoliteness;
In comic or TV you may have encountered the word “
頭(あたま)にくる or 頭にきた)
. The close expression in English may be “pissed off”, which polite girls may not use, right?
Japanese girls use this often among their friends but seldom use to elders or people they are not intimate with.
Instead, they use “
腹が立つ(はらがたつ)
”, which has the same meaning.
Among friends they say either “
彼(かれ)には、腹が立つ” (rather polite) or “彼は頭にくる。
” (it is not polite but you may use it because you know that you are not taken as an indecent person.)
Politeness or impoliteness has something to do with how other people see the usage of words, decent or indecent.
頭にくる
”expression did not exist 30 years ago but became so common to show real anger. I admire the inventor but it is not polite word anyway, strictly speaking.

New words always come and go.
You may be familiar with the expression; “
チョーかわいい“. チョー comes from 超(ちょう)
: super or ultra, thus its meaning is “very, very, very lovely”.
This expression seems to have been invented by some one, a high school girl somewhere ten years or so ago, and has spread all over Japan very quickly.
Among high school students at first, then both downward to junior high and primary school kids and upward to high teens and some adults. Still surviving but this expression is not as common as before.
Please be careful that some expressions you find in comic or other things may be just temporal. If you use it without knowing outdated, it sounds odd to local people.

As to your specific question;
本がいる and 本がいます


本がいる is OK butいりますis correct for いますin grammar. But this example has nothing to do with politeness or impoliteness. It simply means some one thinks some thing in mind.
But, the situation changes when your teacher asks; ”is there any one who needs this book?”.
If you reply “
その本が必要だ or その本がいるit is impolite. You had better say;その本が要ります or その本が必要です。

It is not wrong to answer that way, however, it is much more natural to say,
私がいただきたいです(very polite) or 私が欲(ほ)しいです(polite). (Both I want to have it)
Without
です、
it sounds blunt and odd.

がんばってね。


I put
ね because I know your age from your HP and I am much older. Unless I know it, I will write がんばってください。(polite)
がんばってね is not impolite at all but kind of expression for elders to care about the younger in this case.

 

Reply and further question: 

Oh yes, sorry about my mistake there! When いる has many different meanings, for some reason I got the conjugating mixed up with the いる that means to exist. Thanks for catching that!

So, would a word like
ちょっと in a phrase like 「ちょっといいですか?」 be okay for someone my age to say to you (if I needed to talk to you in private, for example)? Or is there a more polite phrase that could convey the same meaning?

I think that might be the only example I can think of for now. If I have a more questions, I'll post them later.

 

Answer:  (私の説明です)

That is OK in private even to the elder, only if you know them well.
Among friends about same age,
「ちょっといい?」
is more common.

「ちょっとよろしいでしょうか?」
is polite to use in the office or elsewhere including
your school teacher.

 

この質問をしたMande chan15歳の結構気の強いアメリカの少女です。

日本のアニメのキャラクターが大好きのようで、自分のホームページには自分が描いたキャラクターを照会して販売するたくましさもあります。見習わなくっちゃ、と思うしだいです。

 

3.         自分の失敗談で会話を盛り上げるための参考

(会話5−2に続く)

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